Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis is a process of asexual reproduction in which the cell divides in two producing a replica, with an equal number of chromosomes in each resulting diploid cell.

Meiosis is a type of cellular reproduction in which the number of chromosomes are reduced by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes, producing two haploid cells.

Following are the differences between Mitosis and Meiosis:

S.N.

Differences

Mitosis

Meiosis

1 Type of Reproduction Asexual Sexual
2 Genetically Similar Different
3 Crossing Over No, crossing over cannot occur. Yes, mixing of chromosomes can occur.
4 Number of Divisions One Two
5 Pairing of Homologs No Yes
6 Mother Cells Can be either haploid or diploid Always diploid
7 Number of Daughter Cells produced 2 diploid cells 4 haploid cells
8 Chromosome Number Remains the same. Reduced by half.
9 Chromosomes Pairing Does Not Occur Takes place during zygotene of prophase I and continue upto metaphase I.  
10 Creates Makes everything other than sex cells. Sex cells only: female egg cells or male sperm cells.
11 Takes Place in Somatic Cells Germ Cells
12 Chiasmata Absent Observed during prophase I and metaphase I.
13 Spindle Fibres Disappear completely in telophase. Do not disappear completely in telophase I.
14 Nucleoli Reappear at telophase Do not reappear at telophase I.
15 Steps Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase. (Meiosis 1) Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I; (Meiosis 2) Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II and Telophase II.
16 Karyokinesis Occurs in Interphase. Occurs in Interphase I.
17 Cytokinesis Occurs in Telophase. Occurs in Telophase I and in Telophase II.
18 Centromeres Split The centromeres split during anaphase. The centromeres do not separate during anaphase I, but during anaphase II.
19 Prophase Simple Complicated
20 Prophase Duration of prophase is short, usually of few hours. Prophase is comparatively longer and may take days.
21 Synapsis No Synapsis Synapsis of Homologous chromosomes takes place during prophase.
22 Exchange of Segments Two chromatids of a chromosome do not exchange segments during prophase. Chromatids of two homologous chromosome exchange segments during crossing over.
23 Discovered by Walther Flemming Oscar Hertwig
24 Function Cellular reproduction and general growth and repair of the body. Genetic diversity through sexual reproduction.
25 Function Takes part in healing and repair. Takes part in the formation of gametes and maintenance of chromosome number.

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