Litmus Milk Test – Principle, Procedure, Uses and Interpretation

Litmus Milk Test Results

Milk is an excellent medium for the growth of microorganisms because it contains the milk protein casein, the sugar lactose, vitamins, minerals and water. Litmus milk is a milk-based medium used to distinguish between different species of bacteria. The lactose (milk sugar), litmus (pH indicator), and casein (milk protein) contained within the medium can all be metabolized by different types of bacteria. The test …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus pneumoniae) Bile Solubility Positive (+ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Alfa Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Diplococci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Arabinose Positive (+ve) Arbutin Negative (-ve) Dulcitol Negative (-ve) Erythritol Positive (+ve) Fructose …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus mutans

Streptococcus mutans

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus mutans) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Alfa Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Positive (+ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) Arbutin Positive (+ve) Cellobiose Positive (+ve) Dulcitol Negative (-ve) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus canis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus canis

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus canis) CAMP Negative (-ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Shape Cocci Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) Arabitol Negative (-ve) Arbutin Positive (+ve) Dulcitol Negative (-ve) Erythritol Negative (-ve) Fructose Positive (+ve) Galactose Positive (+ve) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus agalactiae) CAMP Positive (+ve) Capsule Positive (+ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Coagulase Negative (-ve) Flagella Non-flagellated Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Beta Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) PYR Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Variable Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Yersinia pestis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Yersinia pestis

Basic Characteristics Properties (Yersinia pestis) Capsule Positive (+ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Flagella Non-Flagellated Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Non-Motile MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Proteus mirabilis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Proteus mirabilis

­Basic Characteristics Properties ( Proteus mirabilis ) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas from Glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Enterobacter cloacae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Enterobacter cloacae

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Enterobacter cloacae) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas from glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Citrobacter freundii

Biochemical Test and Identification of Citrobacter freundii

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Citrobacter freundii) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas from glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Serratia marcescens

Biochemical Test and Identification of Serratia marcescens

    ­Basic Characteristics Properties (Serratia marcescens) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas Variable Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative Anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

­Basic Characteristics Properties ( Neisseria gonorrhoeae) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Negative (-ve) Oxidase Positive (+ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Diplococci Fermentation of DNase Negative (-ve) Fructose Negative (-ve) Glucose Positive (+ve) Lactose Negative (-ve) Maltose Negative (-ve) Mannose …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Shigella flexneri

Biochemical Test and Identification of Shigella flexneri

  ­Basic Characteristics Properties (Shigella flexneri) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Gas Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Variable Motility Non-Motile MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Non-Sporing Urease …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Clostridium difficile

Biochemical Test and Identification of Clostridium difficile

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Clostridium difficile) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Flagella Flagellated Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile Nitrate Reduction Negative (-ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Anaerobic Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Positive (+ve) Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus pyogenes

Test and Identification of Streptococcus pyogenes

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus pyogenes) CAMP Negative (-ve) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Gram Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Beta Hemolytic Motility Non-Motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative Anaerobes PYR Positive (+ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-Sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) 6.5% NaCl Growth Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Staphylococcus epidermidis) Capsule Mostly Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Coagulase Negative (-ve) Gas Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Motility Negative (-ve) MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Urease …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Bacillus anthracis

Bacillus anthracis

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Bacillus anthracis) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Positive (+ve) Motility Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Positive (+ve) Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Positive (+ve) Fermentation of …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Bacillus cereus

Biochemical Test and Identification of Bacillus cereus

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Bacillus cereus) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Variable Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Positive (+ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Bacillus subtilis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Bacillus subtilis

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Bacillus subtilis) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Flagellated Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Gram Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Variable Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Positive (+ve) Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Salmonella Typhi

Biochemical Test and Identification of Salmonella Typhi

Characteristics Salmonella Typhi Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) MUG Test Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Characteristics Klebsiella pneumoniae Capsule +ve Catalase +ve Citrate +ve Flagella -ve Gas +ve Gelatin Hydrolysis -ve Gram Staining -ve Growth in KCN +ve H2S -ve Indole -ve Motility -ve MR (Methyl Red) -ve MUG Test +ve Nitrate Reduction +ve OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Fermentative Oxidase -ve Pigment -ve Shape Rod Spore -ve TSIA (Triple Sugar Iron Agar) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Biochemical Test and Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Characteristics Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram Staining Negative Shape (Cocci/Diplococci/Rods) Rods Motility (Motile / Non-Motile) Motile (Unipolar) Capsule (Capsulated/Non-Capsulated) Non-Capsulated Spore (Sporing/Non-Sporing) Non-Sporing Flagella (Flagellated/Non-Flagellated) Single Flagella Catalase Positive (+ve) Oxidase Positive (+ve) MR Negative (-ve) VP Negative (-ve) OF (Oxidative/Fermentative) Oxidative Indole Negative (-ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Urease Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) H2S Negative …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Enterococcus faecalis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Enterococcus faecalis

Characteristics Enterococcus faecalis Gram Staining Positive Shape (Cocci/Diplococci/Rods) Cocci Motility (Motile / Non-Motile) Non-Motile Capsule (Capsulated/Non-Capsulated) – Spore (Sporing/Non-Sporing) Non-Sporing Flagella (Flagellated/Non-Flagellated) – Catalase Negative (-ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) MR – VP Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative/Fermentative) – Indole Negative (-ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Urease Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Gas – …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Staphylococcus aureus

Biochemical Test and Identification of Staphylococcus aureus

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Staphylococcus aureus) Capsule Non-Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Coagulase Positive (+ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Hemolysis Positive (+ve)- Beta Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Negative (-ve) MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Fermentative Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of E. coli

Biochemical Test and Identification of E. coli

Characteristics E. coli Gram Staining Negative Shape (Cocci/Diplococci/Rods) Rods Motility (Motile / Non-Motile) Motile Capsule (Capsulated/Non-Capsulated) Variable Spore (Sporing/Non-Sporing) Non-Sporing Flagella (Flagellated/Non-Flagellated) Flagellated Catalase Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) MR Positive (+ve) VP Negative (-ve) OF (Oxidative/Fermentative) Fermentative Indole Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Urease Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Gas …

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Biochemical test for Vibrio cholerae

Biochemical test for Vibrio cholerae

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Vibrio cholerae) Capsule Non-Capsulated Citrate +ve Flagella Flagellated Gas -ve Gelatin Hydrolysis +ve Gram Staining -ve H2S -ve Hemolysis Beta Hemolysis Indole +ve Motility Motile MR (Methyl Red) -ve Nitrate Reduction +ve Oxidase +ve Shape Rods Spore Non-Sporing String Test +ve Urease -ve VP (Voges Proskauer) Variable Fermentation of Adonitol -ve Arabinose …

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