C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Result Interpretation of CRP Test

C-Reactive Protein (CRP), also known as Pentraxin 1, is a non-glycosylated protein in the Pentraxin family that also includes Pentraxin 2/SAP and Pentraxin 3/TSG-14. CRP is an acute phase reactant, a protein made by the liver and released into the blood within a few hours after tissue injury, the start of an infection, or other cause …

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Coombs Test- Principle, Types, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Direct Coombs Test

Coombs test is also known as antiglobulin test. The Coombs test tests for antibodies that may stick to the red blood cells and cause red blood cells to die too early. It was discovered by Coombs, Mourant and Race in 1945. Coombs reagent is antihuman globulin. It is made by injecting human globulin into animals, …

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Haemolysis of Streptococci and its types with examples

Haemolysis of Streptococci and its types with examples

Hemolysis is the breakdown of red blood cells (RBC). A substance that causes hemolysis is a hemolysin. Brown (1919) introduced three terms alpha, beta and gamma to indicate three types of streptococci based on haemolytic reactions observed on blood agar plates. Beta-hemolytic Streptococci Beta-hemolysis (β-hemolysis) is associated with complete lysis of red cells surrounding the colony. Beta …

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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- Principle, Procedure, Types, Applications and Animation

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- Principle, Types, Procedure, Animation and Applications

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a powerful method for amplifying particular segments of DNA, distinct from cloning and propagation within the host cell. This procedure is carried out entirely biochemically, that is, in vitro. PCR was invented by Kary Mullis in 1983. He shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry with Michael Smith in 1993. Principle of PCR …

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Normal Laboratory Values of Blood, Plasma, Serum, Urine, CSF and Stool

Normal Laboratory Values of Blood, Plasma, Serum, Urine, CSF and Stool

Normal Laboratory Values: Blood, Plasma, and Serum Test Specimen Conventional Units SI Units Acetoacetate Plasma < 1 mg/dL < 0.1 mmol/L Acetylcholinesterase (ACE), RBC Blood 26.7–49.2 U/g Hb — Acid phosphatase Serum 0.5–5.5 U/L 0–0.9 μkat/L Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) Plasma 25–35 sec — Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Serum 9–52 pg/mL 2–11 pmol/L Albumin Serum …

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Types of Crystals in Urine

Calcium carbonate crystals

Uric acid crystals invariably form in acidic urine, typically with a urine pH < 5.5. Uric acid is soluble in alkaline urine, preventing the precipitation of urate crystals. The inability of uric acid to crystallize at urine pH > 7.0 is the rationale for urinary alkalinization in patients at risk for acute uric acid nephropathy. Uric acid crystalluria is not …

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