Amino Acid Decarboxylase Test – Procedure, Uses and Interpretation

Amino Acid Decarboxylase Test Results

Amino acids are metabolized variably by gram negative aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria as well as gram positive cocci. These amino acids are decarboxylated, hydrolysed or deaminated depending on the organism and the amino acid in question. In decarboxylation, the enzymes break the bond holding the carboxylic (-COOH) group to the rest of the amino …

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Biotypes of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae

Biotypes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a nonmotile, noncapsulated, club-shaped, gram-positive bacillus. Toxigenic strains are lysogenic for one of a family of corynebacteriophages that carry the structural gene for diphtheria toxin, tox. Corynebacterium diphtheriae is classified into biotypes (mitis, intermedius, and gravis) according to colony morphology, as well as into lysotypes based upon corynebacteriophage sensitivity. McLeod and Anderson …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus pneumoniae) Bile Solubility Positive (+ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Alfa Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Diplococci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Arabinose Positive (+ve) Arbutin Negative (-ve) Dulcitol Negative (-ve) Erythritol Positive (+ve) Fructose …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus mutans

Streptococcus mutans

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus mutans) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Alfa Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Positive (+ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) Arbutin Positive (+ve) Cellobiose Positive (+ve) Dulcitol Negative (-ve) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus canis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus canis

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus canis) CAMP Negative (-ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Shape Cocci Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) Arabitol Negative (-ve) Arbutin Positive (+ve) Dulcitol Negative (-ve) Erythritol Negative (-ve) Fructose Positive (+ve) Galactose Positive (+ve) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus agalactiae) CAMP Positive (+ve) Capsule Positive (+ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Coagulase Negative (-ve) Flagella Non-flagellated Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Beta Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) PYR Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Variable Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Yersinia pestis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Yersinia pestis

Basic Characteristics Properties (Yersinia pestis) Capsule Positive (+ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Flagella Non-Flagellated Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Non-Motile MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Proteus mirabilis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Proteus mirabilis

­Basic Characteristics Properties ( Proteus mirabilis ) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas from Glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Enterobacter cloacae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Enterobacter cloacae

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Enterobacter cloacae) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas from glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Citrobacter freundii

Biochemical Test and Identification of Citrobacter freundii

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Citrobacter freundii) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas from glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Serratia marcescens

Biochemical Test and Identification of Serratia marcescens

    ­Basic Characteristics Properties (Serratia marcescens) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas Variable Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative Anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

­Basic Characteristics Properties ( Neisseria gonorrhoeae) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Negative (-ve) Oxidase Positive (+ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Diplococci Fermentation of DNase Negative (-ve) Fructose Negative (-ve) Glucose Positive (+ve) Lactose Negative (-ve) Maltose Negative (-ve) Mannose …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Shigella flexneri

Biochemical Test and Identification of Shigella flexneri

  ­Basic Characteristics Properties (Shigella flexneri) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Gas Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Variable Motility Non-Motile MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Non-Sporing Urease …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Clostridium difficile

Biochemical Test and Identification of Clostridium difficile

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Clostridium difficile) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Flagella Flagellated Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile Nitrate Reduction Negative (-ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Anaerobic Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Positive (+ve) Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus pyogenes

Test and Identification of Streptococcus pyogenes

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus pyogenes) CAMP Negative (-ve) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Gram Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Beta Hemolytic Motility Non-Motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative Anaerobes PYR Positive (+ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-Sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) 6.5% NaCl Growth Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) …

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Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test for the diagnosis of Syphilis

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test for the diagnosis of Syphilis

Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is macroscopic, non treponemal, flocculation card test used to screen for syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum. RPR is simple test can be done within few minutes. This test is less sensitive than treponemal test in early syphilis infection. Two types of antibodies are produced in syphilis i.e. autoantibody (cardiolipin) response and …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Staphylococcus epidermidis) Capsule Mostly Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Coagulase Negative (-ve) Gas Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Motility Negative (-ve) MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Urease …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Bacillus anthracis

Bacillus anthracis

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Bacillus anthracis) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Positive (+ve) Motility Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Positive (+ve) Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Positive (+ve) Fermentation of …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Bacillus cereus

Biochemical Test and Identification of Bacillus cereus

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Bacillus cereus) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Variable Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Positive (+ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) …

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PYR Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Result Interpretation of PYR Test

PYR (Pyrrolidonyl Aminopeptidase) Test is used for the detection of pyrolidonyl arylamidase (also called pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase) activity in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep), Enterococcus spp., some coagulase-negative staphylococci, and some Enterobacteriaceae. It is also known as PYR (L-pyrrolidonyl-β-naphthylamide) which serve as a substrate for the detection of pyrrolidonyl peptidase. Facklam, Thacker, Fox and Eriquez reported …

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Bile Solubility Test- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Bile Solubility Test- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Bile Solubility Test is the test which differentiate Streptococcus pneumoniae (positive- soluble) from alpha-hemolytic streptococci (negative- insoluble). Streptococcus pneumoniae is bile soluble whereas all other alpha-hemolytic streptococci are bile resistant. Principle of Bile Solubility Test S. pneumoniae has an autolytic enzyme which can be demonstrated by allowing a broth culture to age in the incubator; …

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CAMP Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation

CAMP Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation

CAMP test is used to distinguish the species Streptococcus agalactiae from other species of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus. S. agalactiae, a member of the Lancefield Group B streptococci, is one of the causative agents of mastitis in cows. CAMP is an acronym for the authors of this test (Christie, Atkinson, Munch, and Peterson) which was identified in …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Salmonella Typhi

Biochemical Test and Identification of Salmonella Typhi

Characteristics Salmonella Typhi Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) MUG Test Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) …

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Biochemical Test and Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Characteristics Klebsiella pneumoniae Capsule +ve Catalase +ve Citrate +ve Flagella -ve Gas +ve Gelatin Hydrolysis -ve Gram Staining -ve Growth in KCN +ve H2S -ve Indole -ve Motility -ve MR (Methyl Red) -ve MUG Test +ve Nitrate Reduction +ve OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Fermentative Oxidase -ve Pigment -ve Shape Rod Spore -ve TSIA (Triple Sugar Iron Agar) …

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Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) Medium- Composition, Principle, Uses, Preparation and Colony Morphology

Colony Morphology on LJ Medium

Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) is the selective medium which is used for the cultivation and isolation of Mycobacterium species. It was developed by Lowenstein who incorporated congo red and malachite green to inhibit unwanted bacteria. The present formulation, a glycerated egg-based medium, is based upon Jensen’s modification. Jensen’s version eliminates congo red and uses a moderate concentration of malachite green …

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