Biotypes of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae

Biotypes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a nonmotile, noncapsulated, club-shaped, gram-positive bacillus. Toxigenic strains are lysogenic for one of a family of corynebacteriophages that carry the structural gene for diphtheria toxin, tox. Corynebacterium diphtheriae is classified into biotypes (mitis, intermedius, and gravis) according to colony morphology, as well … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus pneumoniae) Bile Solubility Positive (+ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Alfa Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Diplococci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Arabinose Positive (+ve) … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus mutans

Streptococcus mutans

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus mutans) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Alfa Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Positive (+ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus canis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus canis

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus canis) CAMP Negative (-ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Shape Cocci Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) Arabitol Negative (-ve) Arbutin Positive (+ve) Dulcitol Negative … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae

Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus agalactiae) CAMP Positive (+ve) Capsule Positive (+ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Coagulase Negative (-ve) Flagella Non-flagellated Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Beta Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) PYR Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Yersinia pestis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Yersinia pestis

Basic Characteristics Properties (Yersinia pestis) Capsule Positive (+ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Flagella Non-Flagellated Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Non-Motile MR (Methyl … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Proteus mirabilis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Proteus mirabilis

­Basic Characteristics Properties ( Proteus mirabilis ) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas from Glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Enterobacter cloacae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Enterobacter cloacae

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Enterobacter cloacae) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas from glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile MR (Methyl … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Citrobacter freundii

Biochemical Test and Identification of Citrobacter freundii

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Citrobacter freundii) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas from glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Serratia marcescens

Biochemical Test and Identification of Serratia marcescens

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Serratia marcescens) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas Variable Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

­Basic Characteristics Properties ( Neisseria gonorrhoeae) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Negative (-ve) Oxidase Positive (+ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Diplococci Fermentation of DNase Negative (-ve) Fructose Negative (-ve) … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Shigella flexneri

Biochemical Test and Identification of Shigella flexneri

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Shigella flexneri) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Gas Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Variable Motility Non-Motile MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Clostridium difficile

Biochemical Test and Identification of Clostridium difficile

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Clostridium difficile) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Flagella Flagellated Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile Nitrate Reduction Negative (-ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Anaerobic Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Positive … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Streptococcus pyogenes

Test and Identification of Streptococcus pyogenes

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus pyogenes) CAMP Negative (-ve) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Gram Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Beta Hemolytic Motility Non-Motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative Anaerobes PYR Positive (+ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-Sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) 6.5% NaCl Growth … Read more

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test for the diagnosis of Syphilis

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test for the diagnosis of Syphilis

Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is macroscopic, non treponemal, flocculation card test used to screen for syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum. RPR is simple test can be done within few minutes. This test is less sensitive than treponemal test in early syphilis infection. Two types of … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Staphylococcus epidermidis) Capsule Mostly Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Coagulase Negative (-ve) Gas Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Motility Negative (-ve) MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Bacillus anthracis

Bacillus anthracis

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Bacillus anthracis) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Positive (+ve) Motility Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Positive (+ve) … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Bacillus cereus

Biochemical Test and Identification of Bacillus cereus

­Basic Characteristics Properties (Bacillus cereus) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Variable Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment … Read more

PYR Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Result Interpretation of PYR Test

PYR (Pyrrolidonyl Aminopeptidase) Test is used for the detection of pyrolidonyl arylamidase (also called pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase) activity in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep), Enterococcus spp., some coagulase-negative staphylococci, and some Enterobacteriaceae. It is also known as PYR (L-pyrrolidonyl-β-naphthylamide) which serve as a substrate for the … Read more

Bile Solubility Test- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Bile Solubility Test

Bile Solubility Test is the test which differentiate Streptococcus pneumoniae (positive- soluble) from alpha-hemolytic streptococci (negative- insoluble). Streptococcus pneumoniae is bile soluble whereas all other alpha-hemolytic streptococci are bile resistant. Principle of Bile Solubility Test S. pneumoniae has an autolytic enzyme which can be demonstrated … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Salmonella Typhi

Biochemical Test and Identification of Salmonella Typhi

Characteristics Salmonella Typhi Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) MUG … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Biochemical Test and Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Characteristics Klebsiella pneumoniae Capsule +ve Catalase +ve Citrate +ve Flagella -ve Gas +ve Gelatin Hydrolysis -ve Gram Staining -ve Growth in KCN +ve H2S -ve Indole -ve Motility -ve MR (Methyl Red) -ve MUG Test +ve Nitrate Reduction +ve OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Fermentative Oxidase -ve Pigment … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Biochemical Test and Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Characteristics Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram Staining Negative Shape (Cocci/Diplococci/Rods) Rods Motility (Motile / Non-Motile) Motile (Unipolar) Capsule (Capsulated/Non-Capsulated) Non-Capsulated Spore (Sporing/Non-Sporing) Non-Sporing Flagella (Flagellated/Non-Flagellated) Single Flagella Catalase Positive (+ve) Oxidase Positive (+ve) MR Negative (-ve) VP Negative (-ve) OF (Oxidative/Fermentative) Oxidative Indole Negative (-ve) Citrate Positive … Read more

Urease Test- Principle, Media, Procedure and Result

Result Interpretation of Urease Test

Urea Agar was developed by Christensen in 1946 for the differentiation of enteric bacilli. The urease test is used to determine the ability of an organism to split urea, through the production of the enzyme urease. Principle of Urease Test Urea is the product of decarboxylation … Read more

Cetrimide Agar- Composition, Principle, Uses, Preparation and Colony Morphology

Colony Morphology on Cetrimide Agar

Cetrimide Agar is a selective and differential medium used for the isolation and identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical and non-clinical specimens.  Cetrimide is the selective agent and inhibits most bacteria by acting as a detergent ( Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, a quaternary ammonium, cationic detergent). It is also known as … Read more

Biochemical Test and Identification of Enterococcus faecalis

Biochemical Test and Identification of Enterococcus faecalis

Characteristics Enterococcus faecalis Gram Staining Positive Shape (Cocci/Diplococci/Rods) Cocci Motility (Motile / Non-Motile) Non-Motile Capsule (Capsulated/Non-Capsulated) – Spore (Sporing/Non-Sporing) Non-Sporing Flagella (Flagellated/Non-Flagellated) – Catalase Negative (-ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) MR – VP Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative/Fermentative) – Indole Negative (-ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Urease Negative … Read more

String test for the identification of Vibrio cholerae

Result of String Test

Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacilli bacteria with a “comma” shaped body and a flagella for the movement. V. cholerae and V. mimicus are the only Vibrio spp. that do not require salt for growth. The string test may be performed on a glass microscope slide … Read more