Difference between O Antigen and H Antigen

Difference between O Antigen and H Antigen

The antigen used to define serological test of Salmonella include Somatic O antigen, Flagellar H antigen and Vi antigen (Capsular antigen). Some of the differences between O Antigen and H Antigen are as follows: S.N. Characteristics O Antigen H Antigen 1. Types Somatic Antigen Flagellar antigen 2. Composition Polysaccharide Proteinaceous 3. Antibody formation Rapid and …

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Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test for the diagnosis of Syphilis

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test for the diagnosis of Syphilis

Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is macroscopic, non treponemal, flocculation card test used to screen for syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum. RPR is simple test can be done within few minutes. This test is less sensitive than treponemal test in early syphilis infection. Two types of antibodies are produced in syphilis i.e. autoantibody (cardiolipin) response and …

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Difference between Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Difference between Innate and Adaptive Immunity

S.N. Characteristics Innate Immunity Adaptive immunity 1. Presence Innate immunity is something already present in the body. Adaptive immunity is created in response to exposure to a foreign substance. 2. Specificity Non-Specific Specific 3. Response Fights any foreign invader Fight only specific infection 4. Response Rapid Slow (1-2 weeks) 5. Potency Limited and Lower potency …

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C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Result Interpretation of CRP Test

C-Reactive Protein (CRP), also known as Pentraxin 1, is a non-glycosylated protein in the Pentraxin family that also includes Pentraxin 2/SAP and Pentraxin 3/TSG-14. CRP is an acute phase reactant, a protein made by the liver and released into the blood within a few hours after tissue injury, the start of an infection, or other cause …

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Differences Between Antigen and Antibody

Differences Between Antigen and Antibody

Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins, Y-shaped molecules are proteins manufactured by the body that help fight against foreign substances called antigens. Antigens are any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. Antigens can be bacteria, viruses, or fungi that cause infection and disease. Following are some of the differences between Antigen and Antibody: S.N. Antigen …

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Coombs Test- Principle, Types, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Direct Coombs Test

Coombs test is also known as antiglobulin test. The Coombs test tests for antibodies that may stick to the red blood cells and cause red blood cells to die too early. It was discovered by Coombs, Mourant and Race in 1945. Coombs reagent is antihuman globulin. It is made by injecting human globulin into animals, …

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Widal Test- Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and Limitation

Interpretation of Widal Test- Tube Method

Introduction of Widal Test Widal Test is an agglutination test which detects the presence of serum agglutinins (H and O) in patients serum with typhoid and paratyphoid fever. When facilities for culturing are not available, the Widal test is the reliable and can be of value in the diagnosis of typhoid fevers in endemic areas. …

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Antigen- Properties, Types and Determinants of Antigenicity

Incomplete Antigen or Hapten

Antigen is a substances usually protein in nature and sometimes polysaccharide, that generates a specific immune response and induces the formation of a specific antibody or specially sensitized T cells or both. Although all antigens are recognized by specific lymphocytes or by antibodies, only some antigens are capable of activating lymphocytes. Molecules that stimulate immune …

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